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The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Copaifera palustris and Sindora spp. (Leguminosae). Vernacular names applied include sepetir (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak) with various epithets, petir (Sarawak), tampar hantu (Sarawak) and tepih (Sarawak). Major species include Copaifera palustris; Sindora coriacea, S. echinocalyx, S. siamensis, S. velutina and S. wallichii. The sapwood is light grey-brown or beige with a pink tinge and is clearly defined from the heartwood, which is brown with a pink tinge and darkens on exposure. A corewood, which is streaked with layers of darker coloured to almost black wood is often developed.
Also known as Sepetir (Brunei); Krakas, Krakas meng and Krakas sbek (Cambodia); Ensunut, Kaju galedupa, Samparantu, Sampit, Sansanit, Saserut, Sasundur, Sepatir, Seperhantu, Sepetir, Sepetir berduri, Sinampar, Sindur and Tamparan hantu (Indonesia); Mai tao ho (Laos); Kayu galu and Supa (Philippines); Khaman, Kling, Ma Ka Tae and Makata (Thailand); and Gomat (Vietnam).
The timber is a Light Hardwood with a density of 530-785 kg/m3 air dry.
Two series of graveyard tests were conducted at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) on S. coriacea. The first series was conducted in only one test ground and the specimens were found to last for only 1.6 years, while the other series was conducted in three different grounds. The results obtained showed a life span of 2.6 years. The timber is thus classified as not durable to moderately durable. The specimens were destroyed by both termites and fungi. The timber is highly susceptible to powder-post beetle attacks (Menon, 1957). Test sticks of S. coriacea treated by the open tank method with 100% creosote to an absorption of 141 kg/m3 (8.83 lb/ft3) were found to be durable. Only 83% of the 40 test sticks were destroyed after 18 years.
The timber is classified as moderately difficult to treat. Under standard open tank treatment using a mixture of creosote and diesel fuel on test sticks of 65 mm x 65 mm x 900 mm, an average absorption of 96 kg/m3 (5.97 lb/ft3) was obtained. Under the full-cell process and a 3% Copper-Chrome-Arsenic solution, the heartwood of sepetir was found to be difficult to treat as only absorption of 73 kg/m3 (4.58 lb/ft3) was recorded. The dry salt retention achieved was only 2.2 kg/m3 (0.14 lb/ft3).
Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight or shallowly interlocked grain.
The timber falls into Strength Group C (Engku, 1988b) or SG5 (MS 544: Part 2:2001).